Thoughts after reading "Principles" by Bridgewater Fund CEO Ray Dario

Home Page > Education > Content 2021-07-21

Topic:Five methods for fund selection

2020/03/15 Modification: There is an audiobook version of the book. At the end of the article, pay attention to scan my official account, or add the official account ID: yestupa, leave me a message, and send it to you after receiving it

During this period of time at home "confinement", I read more than 500 pages of "Principles" by Bridgewater Fund CEO Ray Dario, and did a reading by the way notes.

Recently, I have seen a lot of insider inside organizations that have been revealed. I feel even more that the principles of being and doing things are very important, because principles are the basis of basic actions and can well reflect a person and an organization’s Values.

I remember watching a documentary about the American Mafia when I was a child, The Iceman Confesses: Secrets of a Mafia Hitman, a mafia figure named Richard Kuklinski, from Sicily, the birthplace of the Mafia, and he followed his father when he was a child To "expand business" in the United States. He personally talked about the Mafia activities in the 1960s and 1990s in the United States. It talks about the rules in the Mafia, one of which is "No drugs", because drugs will ruin people (although they are not doing the work of saving the world). But Don, Richard's nephew, who was second in Chicago, secretly organized the drug trade. After being discovered, Richard personally chopped off his nephew's two fingers and drove out of the party.

Now think about it, even the Mafia will stick to some principles, is it ironic?

Well, no more nonsense, lest you be troubled.

The book "Principles" is equivalent to the autobiography of Ray Dario. From his family history, to introducing the life and work principles he has learned after overcoming obstacles and experiencing ups and downs, and how Apply to actual work and life.

And the principle of our life or work means that we always follow the principles that can be clearly explained. Ray Dario will not blindly invite everyone to follow his principles. Instead, he emphasized that the most important thing is to develop his own principles, write them down, and implement them well. And his life and work principles provide a lot of inspiration for others. The principles in it are not the "bottom line" that we usually understand, but should be understood more as "thoughts" and "methods."

Here I want to share with you the three major points I have learned directly. I believe that no matter what industry, job position or life stage, friends can benefit from them.

At the end of the article, I will show the hundreds of life and work principles, or attitudes, summarized by Rui. If you are interested, you can take a look.

In addition, I suggest you take a look at his TED talk, which has Chinese and English subtitles:


_ how _ to _ build _ a _ company _ where _ the _ best _ ideas _ win

It is about How to build a company where the best ideas win-how to build a company full of good ideas. It is very inspiring for both entrepreneurs and managers.

First, we need to constantly update our principles

As mentioned above, the principles in the book are not the "bottom line" we understand. The principles mentioned by Ray Dario should be understood as "thoughts" and "methods."

The first thing I learned is to keep "learning principles".

How to learn? Through bold goals and firm execution!

We are all in such a loop:

Put forward goals> Learn principles in failure/success> Improve yourself> Put forward bigger goals.

And the first step is to propose a goal. The book states that it must be "bold". Is it a bit familiar: Uncle Wang's "earn one hundred million first".

Of course, we haven't reached that level yet, so we don't need to be discouraged. Set another goal, such as being promoted to a managerial position, turning a side job into a full-time job, and so on.

There will definitely be many problems in the process, and even the plan will end in failure. But the most important thing is that we must learn the "principles" from it-what is not done well, improve; if done well, persist and try to improve.

Before you learn or understand the principles, it is best to set a goal first, and comprehend your own principles in the implementation.

Second, authenticity and transparency.

Ray Dario mentioned two ways of doing things in the company:

Authenticity: Imagine an environment in which you and the surrounding Everyone can honestly speak their thoughts anytime, anywhere. What a healthy lifestyle! There is no hierarchy, everyone can communicate freely. Nowadays, many companies have so-called flat management, but in depth, they still talk about titles and titles. More importantly, in a company, this can avoid mistakes in equal discussions and avoid making wrong decisions to the greatest extent.

Transparency: This complements authenticity. The more candid you are about what you are doing and will do, the more accurately people can weigh their feedback on you. Transparency is invaluable for rapid learning and effective change. Learning is the product of a continuous real-time feedback loop in which we can make decisions, view the results of the decisions and improve our understanding of the results. An enlightened mind can improve the efficiency of these feedback loops, because you can be transparent about what you are doing and why, so that you and others can know clearly without any misunderstandings. The more open and transparent, the more likely it is that others will give honest feedback. Learning to become transparent is like learning to speak in public: although it is embarrassing at first, try slowly and you will be more comfortable


Three, the best asset is talent.

My principle of employing people is two-point:

1. Ningque not overrun.

2. Inviting people for three months, and firing people within three days.

This experience is quite deep. There used to be a manager in the company. At most, there were eight people under him. They left one by one, and none of them could stay for a year. Later, I personally found the resigned colleagues. They thought they were just swaying because of their youth, but they all responded that their boss likes to ask for credit. If they have learned from outside and made achievements in their own way, the boss will be in the superior and other The project team brags that everything is their own idea. After consideration, I made up my mind to propose to dismiss the manager (although I would have to pay several months' salary). Because I have always felt that in the Internet industry, creativity and vitality are the fundamental motivation for work, and young people are the company's best source of innovative ideas. I also don't want those old fritters with corpse-bit vegetarian meals to have a negative impact on newcomers.

I also reflected on this point, and I also neglected the management.

And the book also said that we need to be clear about what kind of person we want. Depending on the company's situation, the needs for people are also different: whether it is necessary to pass the performance, or the time to use it depends on the personality And is it in line with company values?

There are also some common qualities: decisive, open-minded, independent thinking, etc.

True talent, I think it is a comprehensive individual of character and ability. But character will account for more points because of lack of ability. If he is motivated and has the ability to learn by himself, his performance will undoubtedly increase when he enriches himself.

Four. Five steps to success

1. Have a clear goal

First, you must choose the goal you want to pursue. The chosen goal will determine our direction. Prioritize: Although we can almost get what we want, we cannot have everything. Don't confuse goals with desires. An appropriate goal is a goal that really needs to be achieved. In a word, set goals based on actual conditions. High expectations will create powerful motivation.

2. Identify and deal with problems encountered As you move towards your goals, you will encounter problems. Acknowledging your weaknesses is the first step in overcoming the problems you will face. Be specific when determining the problem, because different problems have different solutions. Don't confuse cause and effect. "I can't sleep" is not a problem,Is the result. What caused this result? Prioritize the problem.

3. Diagnose the root cause of the problem accurately If you want to achieve the goal, you must remain calm and analytical so that you can accurately diagnose the problem. Before "what", first pay attention to "what".

4. Have a plan Before moving forward, figure out where you are now, then visualize what you will do in the future and make a clear plan so that you can achieve your goals. Remember, there are usually many ways to achieve goals. But you only need to find an effective method to abandon the invalid part of the plan in time. Write down the plan for relevant people to review and measure progress.

5. Implementation and advancement Those who do not implement the plan will accomplish nothing. It takes hard work and self-discipline to follow its own plan.

In fact, we all have a lot of ambitions, but due to the lack of implementation this step, the opportunity is lost in vain.

Remember my words: In this unpredictable era, not taking risks is the most risky.

Five. How to make good decisions effectively

Decision is a two-step process (first learn and then make a decision), you must learn before making a decision. The decision-making process is the process of choosing which knowledge should be absorbed and exercised, and then weighing this knowledge to determine the course of action, that is, "how to do it." The biggest obstacle to making good decisions is pride: "self" can be said to be a subconscious defense mechanism that makes it difficult for us to accept our mistakes and weaknesses. Don't be dictatorial, try to involve others in decision-making, and listen to opinions and suggestions. Don't include personal emotions.

Summary of "Principles"

The summary below is the original text of the book. I recorded everything in it in my Evernote, and added a little bit of my own understanding (with parentheses as a remark— —Because some parts of the Chinese version are more heavily translated), form a small note, and show it to friends who don’t have time to read the whole book by the way. The entries in it are very incisive.

Think independently and decide:


1) What do you want;


2 ) What are the facts (which can be understood as the status quo);


3) Facing the facts, how do you realize your wishes, and keep humble and open-minded so that you can Use your best thinking.

Principles of Life

1 Embrace reality and deal with reality

1.1 Be a super realistic person

a. Dream + reality + determination = a successful life.

1.2 The truth (or more precisely, an accurate understanding of reality) is the fundamental basis for any good result

1.3 Be mindful Extremely open and transparent

a. For rapid learning and effective change, extremely open-minded and transparent is of infinite value.

b. Don't worry about other people's opinions, make them an obstacle to you.

c. Embracing extreme truth-seeking and extreme transparency will bring more meaningful work and more meaningful people

1.4 Observe nature and learn the laws of reality

a. Don't stick to your view of what things "should" look like. This will prevent you from understanding the real situation.

b. For a thing to be "good", it must conform to the laws of reality and promote the evolution of the whole, which can bring the greatest return.

c. Evolution is the most powerful force in the universe, the only eternal thing, and the driving force of everything (so we must continue to learn and progress).

d. If you don't evolve, you will die.

1.5 Evolution is the greatest achievement and greatest reward of life

a. The individual incentive mechanism must conform to the goals of the group.

b. Reality tends to be optimized for the whole, not for the individual.

c. It is invaluable to adapt to reality through quick trial and error (the cost of trial and error may be high, but the return is often higher than the cost).

d. Realize that you are everything and nothing, and decide what you want to be. (Keep humble)

e. Your future depends on your perspective.

1.6 Understanding the practical lessons provided by nature

a. Maximize your evolution.

b. Remember "no pain, no gain".

c. A fundamental law of nature is that in order to gain strength, one must strive to break through the limit.

1.7 Pain + reflection = progress

a. Greet the pain instead of avoiding it.

b. Accept severe love.

1.8 Consider the follow-up and subsequent results

1.9 Accept the results

1.10 Looking down on the machine from a higher level

a. Imagine yourself as a big machine running Small machine, and understand that you have the ability to change your machine to achieve better results.

b. By comparing the results you achieved with your goals, you can determine how to improve your machine.

c. Distinguish between you as the designer of the machine and you as the worker in the machine.

d. The biggest mistake most people make is not looking at themselves and others objectively, which causes them to plant themselves or others' weaknesses time and time again.

e. Successful people can transcend themselves, look at things objectively, and manage things to shape change.

f. Ask other people who are good at areas you are not good at. This is an excellent skill that you should develop anyway. This will help you build a safety fence and avoid doing wrong things yourself.

g. Because it is difficult to look at yourself objectively, you need to rely on the opinions of others and all the evidence.

h. If your mind is open enough and determined enough, you can achieve almost any wish

2 Use a five-step process to achieve your life aspirations

2.1 There are clear goals

a. Prioritization: Although you can get almost anything you want, you can't get everything you want.

b. Don't confuse goals and desires. (For example, if your income is 100,000, the goal can be 200,000, but 10 million is a desire) c. Reconcile your goals and desires to clarify what you really want in life .

d. Don't mistake the decoration of success for success itself.

e. Never veto a goal just because you think it cannot be achieved.

f. Remember that great expectations create great abilities. (Big goals inspire great motivation)

g. If you have flexibility and self-accountability, then there is little that can stop you from succeeding.

h. Knowing how to deal with setbacks is as important as knowing how to move forward.

2.2 Identify the problem and not tolerate it

a. Treat the painful problem as a potential opportunity to test your progress.

b. Don't avoid the problem, because the problem is rooted in the cruel reality that doesn't look good.

c. To find the problem precisely.

d. Don't mistake a cause of the problem for the problem itself. (Find out the root cause)

f. After finding a problem, don't tolerate the problem.

2.3 Diagnose the problem and find the source of the problem

a. First understand what the problem is, and then decide what to do.

b. Distinguish between direct cause and root cause.

c. Recognizing that understanding the characteristics of people (including yourself) helps to form reasonable expectations.

2.4 Planning a plan

a. Review before going forward.

b. Think of your problem as a series of results produced by a machine.

c. Remember that there are usually many ways to achieve your goals.

d. Think of your plan as a movie script, and then gradually think about who will do what.

e. Write down your plan so that everyone can see it and execute it against the plan.

f. Understand that planning a good plan does not necessarily take a lot of time.

2.5 Firmly implement the plan from beginning to end

a. No matter how good the plan is, it will not help if it is not implemented.

b. The importance of good work habits is oftenIs greatly underestimated.

2.6 Remember: if you find a solution, the weakness is not important

a. Check the types of mistakes you make and identify your usual Which step of the five-step process did not do well?

b. Everyone has at least one biggest weakness that hinders their success. Find your weakness and deal with it.

2.7 Understand your and other people’s "mood map" and humility

3 Be extremely open-minded

3.1 Understanding your two major obstacles

a. Understanding your self-awareness obstacles.

b. "Two you" are vying for control over you. c. Understand your blind spot obstacles.

3.2 Pursue an extremely open mind

a. Sincerely believe that you may not know the best solution, and realize that it is with you Compared with what you know, whether you can properly handle "don't know" is more important.

b. Recognize that decision-making should be divided into two steps: first analyze all relevant information, and then decide.

c. Don't worry about your image, just care about how to achieve your goals.

d. Realize that you cannot "just produce without absorbing".

e. Realize that in order to see things from the perspective of others, you must temporarily suspend judgment,

f. Remember, you are looking for the best answer, not The best answer you can come up with.

g. Find out whether you are arguing or trying to understand a problem, and based on the credibility of you and the other party, think about which approach is most reasonable.

3.3 Appreciate and appreciate: thoughtful differences of opinion

3.4 and believable and willing Those who express the disagreement will look at your point of view together

a. Prepare for the worst to make it as not as bad as possible.

3.5 Identify the different signs of closed and open minds that you should pay attention to

3.6 Understanding How can you be extremely open-minded

a. Often use pain to guide yourself to high-quality thinking.

b. Open your mind as a habit.

c. Know your own thinking blind spots.

d. If many credible people say that you are doing something wrong, and only you do not think so, you have to think about whether you are biased.

e. Meditation. (The author is also a yoga practicer, and he tends to meditate in the direction of yoga)

f. Value evidence and encourage others to do the same.

g. Try to help others and keep their minds open.

h. Use evidence-based decision-making tools.

i. Know when to stop defending your opinions and trust your decision-making process. (Listen to the opinions of others)

4 Understand that people are very different from each other

4.1 Understand the power that you and other people’s way of thinking can bring


a. We have a variety of innate characteristics, which can either help or hurt ourselves, depending on how we apply.

4.2 Meaningful work and meaningful interpersonal relationships are not only good choices we make, but also our natural physiological needs (respect among colleagues)

4.3 Understand the main struggles in the brain and how to control these struggles to realize the wishes of "you"

a . Understand that the conscious and subconscious are constantly fighting.

b. Know that the most common struggle is the struggle between emotions and thinking.

c. Reconcile your emotions and thinking.

d. Choose your habits.

e. Insist on training the "lower level of you" in a friendly manner to develop good habits.

f. Understand the difference between right-brain thinking and left-brain thinking.

g. Understand the degree to which the brain can change.

4.4 Recognize the characteristics of oneself and others (teach students according to their aptitude, set posts according to their aptitude)

a. Introverted and extroverted.

c. Thinking and feeling.

d. Planning and discovery.

e. Creator, promoter, improver, implementer and adaptor.

f. Focus on tasks and goals.

g. Workplace Personality Scale.

h. Shapers are people who can go all the way from the idea to the realization of the idea.

4.5 No matter what goals you want to achieve, having the right people perform their duties to support your goals is the key to success

a. Management You, and coordinate with others to achieve your goals.

5 Learn how to make effective decisions

5.1 Recognize:

(1) The biggest threat that affects good decisions is harmful Emotion;

(2) Decision-making is a two-step process (understand first and then decide)

5.2 Comprehensive analysis of the current situation

a. One of the most important decisions you can make is to decide who to ask.

b. Don't hear what you believe.

c. Everything is bigger in front of your eyes.

d. Don't exaggerate the benefits of new things.

5.3 Comprehensive analysis of the changing situation

a. Always remember to improve the speed and level of things, And the relationship between the two.

b. It does not have to be too precise.

c. Remember the "80/20 rule" and understand what the key "20%" is.

d. Don't be a perfectionist.

5.4 Consider all levels efficiently

a. Use "above the baseline" and "below the baseline" to determine which level the conversation is on.

b. Remember, decisions need to be made at a reasonable level, but they should also be consistent across all levels.

5.5 The best tools for comprehensively analyzing reality and understanding how to act are logic, reason and common sense

5.6 Make decisions based on the expected value calculation

a. No matter how high the probability of your bet is, it is always possible to improve your bet probability value.

b. Knowing when not to bet is as important as knowing what bet is worth betting.

c. The best choice is a choice that has more advantages than disadvantages, not a choice without harm.

5.7 Compare the value of more information and the cost of not making a decision, and determine the order of priority

a. First put your "must do" After you have done the "things", do your "things you want to do" again.

b. You probably don't have time to deal with unimportant things, so it's best to keep it so that you don't have time to deal with important things.

c. Don't treat probability as possibility.

5.8 Simplification

5.9 Principles of use

5.10 Weighting the credibility of your decisions

5.11 The principle of turning into an algorithm, let the computer make decisions with you

5.12 Don’t trust it too much before you have a deep understanding of artificial intelligence

Work Principles

● An organization is like a machine, mainly composed of two components: culture and people

a. Excellent institutions have excellent people and excellent culture.

b. Excellent people have noble character and outstanding ability.

c. A good culture does not conceal problems and differences, but openly and properly solve them, likes to let imagination run wild and is willing to create a precedent.

● Severe love helps to achieve excellent work performance and establish good interpersonal relationships

a. In order to achieve a great cause, one should not compromise It is necessary to stand firm and not give way to the matter.

b. Creative selection based on credibility weighting is the best mode to achieve effective decision-making

c. Let enthusiasm and workCombine the two into one, and work hard to advance with like-minded people

1. Build a good culture...

1.1 Don't be afraid to know the facts

1.2 We must be upright and require others to maintain integrity

a. If you don't want to talk about others face to face, don't say it secretly. If you want to criticize others, just point it out face to face.

b. Do not obstruct the pursuit of facts and the interests of the entire organization because of loyalty to the individual.

1.3 Create an atmosphere where everyone has the right to know what is reasonable, and can’t keep dissent but keep silent

a. Express it and be responsible for your views, otherwise you will leave.

b. Remember to be absolutely honest and honest.

c. Don't believe in dishonest people.

1.4 To maintain extreme transparency

a. Realize justice through transparency.

b. Share the hardest things to share.

c. To minimize exceptions for extreme transparency.

d. Ensure that employees who obtain information due to extreme transparency realize that they have a responsibility to manage the information properly and make wise trade-offs.

e. It is necessary to be transparent to those who are good at managing information, and to those who are not good at managing information, either opaque or cleared out of the company team.

1.5 Meaningful interpersonal relationships and meaningful work promote each other, especially in an environment of extreme truth-seeking and extreme transparency

2 Meaningful work, develop meaningful interpersonal relationships

2.1 Be loyal to the common mission, not the half-hearted person

2.2 Be clear about each other's interactions

a. Ensure that employees are more considerate of others and less demanding from others.

b. Make sure everyone understands the difference between fairness and generosity.

c. Be clear where the boundaries are and stand on the other end of fairness.

d. Remuneration is compatible with work.

2.3 Recognize that an oversized organization poses a threat to the establishment of meaningful interpersonal relationships

2.4 Remember that many people just pretend to work for you, but are actually pursuing their own self-interest

2.5 Value honesty and ability Strong and consistent employees

3 Create a culture that allows mistakes but does not tolerate recklessness and repeated mistakes

3.1 Realize that mistakes are the evolution of things The natural collateral part of the process

a. Turn failure into a good thing. (Learning from mistakes and failures)

b. Don't be annoyed by your own or others' mistakes, but cherish it!

3.2 Don't be entangled in the momentary success or failure, but focus on achieving the goal

a. Don't worry about "complaining" or "praising", but focusing on "accurate" or "inaccurate".

3.3 Observe the error mode and determine whether it is caused by shortcomings

3.4 Remember to reflect after experiencing pain

a. Be able to reflect and make sure your employees can do the same.

b. You know, no one can look at themselves objectively.

c. Teach and strengthen the principle of "eating a ditch and gaining wisdom".

3.5 Know which errors are acceptable and which cannot be tolerated, and don’t let your employees make unacceptable mistakes

4 Seek consensus and stick to it

4.1 Recognize that conflict is essential to building good interpersonal relationships, because people use conflict to test whether their principles are consistent and whether they can be resolved Differences between each other

a. It takes time and energy to reach consensus, because this is the best investment you can make.

4.2 Know how to reach consensus and control differences

a. Put possible disagreements on the table.

b. Distinguish between pale complaints and appeals that help improve work.

c. Remember that every story has another side.

4.3 Keep an open mind and at the same time be firm and decisive

a. Distinguish between open-minded and closed-minded people.

c. Beware of those who are ashamed to admit that they are not omniscient.

d. Ensure that the person in charge of the work is open to issues and opinions of others.

e. Recognize that seeking consensus is a two-way responsibility.

f. Substance is more important than form.

g. Be reasonable and expect others to be reasonable.

h. Suggestions, questions and criticism are not the same, so don’t get confused.

4.4 If you preside over the meeting, you should grasp the conversation.

a. Clear the meeting’s host and The service object of the meeting.

b. The statement should be clear and accurate to avoid confusion.

c. Determine what communication method to use based on goals and priorities.

d. Be decisive and open-minded when hosting discussions.

e. Shuttle and compare in different levels of discussion and dialogue.

f. Beware of "off-topic".

g. Stick to the logic of the dialogue.

h. Be careful not to lose personal responsibility due to collective decision-making.

i. Use the two-minute rule to avoid being continuously interrupted by others.

j. Beware of the undisputed "Quick Mouth King".

l. Use communication methods.

4.5 Great cooperation is like playing jazz

a. 1+1=3.

b. The efficiency of 3-5 people is higher than 20 people.

4.6 Cherish like-minded people

4.7 If you find yourself unable to reconcile the main differences between each other ——Especially at the value level——Consider whether it is worth maintaining this relationship

5 When making decisions, we must start from the credibility of the viewpoint

5.1 Adopting creativity and choosing the best requires you to understand the strengths of each person’s point of view

a. If you can’t accomplish something by yourself, don’t think about it. Instruct others how to do it.

b. Know that everyone has their own point of view, but it is usually not a good idea.

5.2 Pay attention to the people with the highest credibility and inconsistent views with you, try to understand the reasoning process

a. Analyze people's credibility to evaluate the possibility of their views being correct.

b. The more credible views are likely to come from the following two kinds of people:

(1) At least three successful solutions to related issues;

(2 ) The causality analysis of the conclusions made makes sense.

c. If someone has no experience, but the reasoning seems logical and can withstand the stress test, you must give it a try.

e. There is no shortage of good ideas for inexperienced people, sometimes far better than experienced people.

f. Everyone should be confident when expressing their opinions.

5.3 Consider which role you are going to play as a teacher, student, or colleague. You should preach, ask questions or debate


a. It is more important for students to understand teachers than teachers to understand students, although both are important.

b. Everyone has the right and responsibility to do their best to understand the important things, and they must also maintain a humble and very open mind.

5.4 To understand the process and logic of people’s comments

a. No matter who you ask, the other person Generally provide ""Answer", so you must carefully consider who to ask.

b. Allow everyone to comment on other people’s views, which is inefficient and time-consuming. c. Beware of "I think..." Is the beginning of the speech.

d. The system sorts out employees’ work records and evaluates the credibility of their speeches.

5.5 Handling differences must be efficient

a. Knowing the time to end the debate, promote consensus on the next step.

b. Credibility weighting can be used as a tool, but it cannot be replaced The responsible person’s decision.

c. If you don’t have time to fully review everyone’s thoughts yourself, choose a credible point of view wisely.

d. If you are in charge To make decisions, compare the conclusions you have reached after weighting credibility with your own ideas.

5.6 Everyone has rights and obligations Try to understand the important things

a. Communication is to get the best response, so you should communicate with the most relevant people.

b. To educate or promote consensus Communication for purpose is not just to get the best answer, so more people should be involved.

c. Realize that you don’t need to do everything Make judgments.

5.7 Pay more attention to whether the decision-making mechanism is fair, not whether it is what you want

6 Know how to overcome differences

6.1 Keep in mind: the principles cannot be ignored when reaching an agreement with each other

a. Everyone must abide by the same principles of behavior.

6.2 Don't let everyone confuse the right to complain, make suggestions, and public debate with the right to make decisions

a. When disagreeing with the decision itself and the decision maker, be aware of the overall situation.

6.3 Don't ignore major differences

a. Don’t be bothered by trivial matters when you concentrate on negotiating important matters.

b. Don’t be trapped by differences-either submit a decision from your superior or vote!

6.4 Once a decision is made, everyone must obey, even if individuals may have different opinions

a. Focus on the big picture .

b. Don’t tolerate mob methods.

6.5 If creative selection conflicts with the interests of the organization, it will inevitably cause Hazard

a. Only in rare or extreme circumstances will a "curfew" be declared, at this time It may not be considered for the time being to follow the principles.

b. Beware that someone may propose to temporarily abandon the idea for the "organization's benefit."

6.6 Know that once those who have the right to make decisions do not want to act according to principles, rules will be broken

7 What’s more important than what you do Find the right person

7.1 Your most important decision is to choose the person responsible for the job

a The most important responsible person is the person responsible for setting goals, planning results, and organizing implementation at the highest level.

7.2 The person who is ultimately responsible should be the person who is responsible for the consequences of the behavior

a. Ensure that everyone has a superior.

7.3 Remember that behind things are the power of people

8 Use the right people, because improper use of people is costly

8.1 Let the right people do the right things

a. Consider what kind of values, abilities and abilities the person you are looking for should have Skills (in this order).

c. Note: People and responsibilities must match.

d. Look for outstanding people, not "just this kind of".

e. Don't rely on your influence to help others find jobs.

8.2 Remember that there are differences between people. Different understanding and thinking make different people suitable for different jobsp>

a. Understand how to conduct a personality assessment, and be clear about the meaning of the results. b. It is easy for people to choose people who are similar to themselves, so arrange the interviewer to ensure that they can find the people you want to recruit.

c. Choose people who can know yourself objectively.

d. Remember that people generally do not change much with the years.

8.3 Treat your team like a sports manager: no one can win on their own, but everyone must beat the opponent

8.4 Follow people's past experience

a. Check the situation.

b. Academic performance cannot fully prove whether this person has the values ​​and abilities you want.

c. Although strong conceptual thinking ability is the best, it is also important to have rich experience and outstanding performance.

d. Be wary of unrealistic idealists.

e. Don't assume that people who succeed elsewhere are equally qualified for the job you require.

8.5 Finding someone is not only for a specific job, you also have to be willing to share your life with them

a. Choose people who will ask a lot of good questions.

b. Let job seekers know the dark side of the job.

c. The collaborator must be like-minded people, but must also be friends.

8.6 When considering salary, provide stability and let people see opportunities

a. Salary is paid by person, not by job position.

b. Salary must be at least roughly linked to performance evaluation results.

c. Salary is higher than the average level.

d. Think more about how to make the cake bigger, rather than how to cut the cake to get the largest piece.

8.7 Remember to maintain a great cooperative relationship, more important than money is thoughtfulness and generosity

a. Be magnanimous to others, and ask others in the same way.

8.8 Excellent people are not easy to find, so you must think about how to keep them

9 Continuous training , Testing, evaluating and deploying employees

9.1 Understand that you and your subordinates will experience personal growth

a. After recognizing the advantages and disadvantages, the individual will grow rapidly. As a result, the career path was not as expected.

c. Teach people how to fish, not teach people how to fish, even if that means making them make some mistakes.

d. Experience will form internalized learning, which cannot be replaced by book learning.

9.2 Provide feedback continuously

9.3 Appraise people accurately, don’t be "Mr. Good"

a. In the end, accuracy and goodwill are the same thing.

b. Use praise and criticism correctly.

c. Consider accuracy, not consequences.

d. Make an accurate evaluation.

e. Learn from failure as you learn from success.

f. What most people have done and what they are doing is not as important as they think.

9.4 Severe love is not only the most difficult to give, but also the most important love (because it is very unpopular)

a. Although most people like to listen to good things, accurate criticism is even more rare.

9.5 Don't hide your observations of people as deep as possible

a. Comprehensively judge from specific details.

b. Discover useful information from points.

d. Use evaluation tools such as performance surveys, performance indicators, and formal assessments to record all of a person’s performance.

9.6 Make the learning process open, growing, and repetitive

a. Performance indicators must be clear and fair.

b. Encourage employees to reflect on their performance objectively.

c. Have a global view.

d. The performance appraisal should start from specific cases, find out the rules, and explore the evidence with the assessee to reach a consensus.

e. When assessing people, the two biggest mistakes you may make are: overconfidence in your own assessment and inability to reach consensus.

f. Reaching an evaluation consensus cannot be based on hierarchy.

g. Get to know your employees through candid conversations about errors and their root causes, and let them know you.

h. Ensure that employees do their work well and do not have to supervise everything.

i. It is difficult to change.

j. Help people through difficulties by discovering their shortcomings.

9.7 Knowing how people do things and judging whether this way of doing things can achieve good results is more important than understanding what they do

a. If If a person does not do a good job, one must consider whether this is due to insufficient study or insufficient ability.

b. When training and testing an employee with poor performance, a common mistake is to look only at whether he has the required skills, rather than assessing their abilities.

9.8 If you and someone really agree on their shortcomings, these shortcomings may really exist

a. When judging employees, there is no need to reach the state of "no doubt".

b. In less than a year, you will be able to understand what a person is and whether they are suitable for their position.

c. Continuous evaluation during the employee's tenure.

d. Evaluate employees as rigorously as you evaluate candidates.

9.9 Train, protect or dismiss employees, do not repair them

a. Do not let employees corpses vegetarian meals.

b. Be ready to "shoot the one you love".

c. When someone is "not suitable for a certain position", consider whether there is a more suitable vacancy for him, or whether you need to let them leave the company.

d. Be cautious about transferring incompetent employees to new positions.

9.10 The changing of posts is to make the best use of their talents and benefit the entire team

a. Before changing to a new position, Let employees "fulfill their duties."

9.11 Don’t lower the standard

10 Manage like a machine to achieve your goals

10.1 Looking down on your machine and yourself from a high level

a. Constantly compare the results with your goals .

b. A good manager is an engineer of an organization.

c. Develop quantitative evaluation tools.

d. Be careful not to spend too much energy on coping with various tasks and neglect your machine.

e. Don't be distracted by emergencies.

10.2 The means to deal with each problem must serve two purposes:

(1) Let You are closer to the goal;

(2) Being able to train and test machines (human and design)

a. Everything you experience is a case.

b. If there is a problem, discuss it at two levels:

(1) Machine level (how the result is generated);

(2) Case level (how to deal with it).

c. When formulating rules, explain the principles behind them clearly.

d. Your policy should be a natural extension of your principles.

e. Although good principles and policies will almost always provide good guidelines, remember that there will be exceptions to every rule.

10.3 Understanding the difference between management, micro-management and unmanagement

a. Managers must ensure that they are responsible The field is working effectively.

c. It is better for a good skier to be a ski instructor than a novice.

d. You should authorize employees to do specific tasks.

10.4 Understand the motivation of employees and their work, because people are your most important resource


a. Know the people who are important to you and the company often.

b. Confidence in employees should come through understanding, not random guessing.

c. According to your confidence level, conduct different levels of investigation and understanding.

10.5 Clarify responsibilities

a. Remember who is responsible for what.

b. Prevent "role misplacement".

10.6 Explore your machine in depth to understand what you can expect from it

a. Obtain A sufficient level of understanding.

b. Don't keep too far away.

c. Use "Daily Update" to understand the behavior and thoughts of team members.

d. Be accountable to see if the problem will happen suddenly.

e. The accountability process involves the next level of your direct reports.

f. Allow your subordinates to report to you at any time.

g. Don’t assume that employees’ answers are correct.

i. Make the accountability process transparent instead of privately.

j. Welcome to be held accountable.

k. People who have completely different views and ways of thinking often have poor communication with each other.

l. Don't miss a suspicious clue.

m. There are many ways to solve the problem.

10.7 Think like the owner of the company and ask your colleagues to do the same

a. Vacation Nor should responsibility be forgotten.

b. Force yourself and employees to do difficult things.

10.8 Recognize and deal with the risks of key figures

10.9 Don’t treat everyone equally, treat them reasonably and differentiate

a. Don't be forced to make concessions easily.

b. Care about employees.

10.10 Good leaders are generally not as simple as they seem on the surface

a. Be both weak and strong.

b. Don't worry if your employees like you, don't let them tell you how to do things.

c. Don't give orders to make others obey you, try to be understood and understood by others in order to reach consensus.

10.11 Make sure that you and your employees assume the corresponding responsibilities, and welcome others to supervise you and take responsibility

a. If you have reached an agreement with others on how to do something, make sure they do so unless you have reached a consensus on changing the way.

b. Distinguish two different failure situations. One is failure to comply with the agreement, and the second is failure to make an agreement at all.

c. Avoid sinking.

d. Beware of people who confuse goals and tasks, because if they can't tell them clearly, you can't trust them and delegate responsibilities to them.

e. Beware of the lack of focus and futile "theoretical ought".

10.12 Clearly communicate the plan and use clear quantitative indicators to evaluate progress

a. Review the implementation of the plan before proceeding.

10.13 When you cannot fully perform your duties, submit the problem to your superiors for resolution, and let your subordinates do the same.

11 If the problem is found, no Tolerance issues

11.1 If you are not worried, you have to worry; if you are worried, you don’t have to worry

11.2 Design and supervise the machine to ensure that you can find out what is done well and what is not good enough, otherwise you will do it yourself

a. Designate employees to be responsible for discovering problems, give them time to review, and ensure that they have an independent reporting route that can reflect the problem without worrying about the consequences of revealing the ugly.

b. Beware of "warm water boiled frog syndrome".

c. Beware of the crowdpsychological. Even if no one is worried, it does not mean that there is no problem.

d. When a problem is found, compare the result with the target.

e. "Taste the taste of the soup".

f. Try to let as many eyes as possible to find the problem.

g. "Open the cork".

h. The person who is most familiar with the job has the most say.

11.3 Be very specific when analyzing the problem, don’t talk about it in general terms

a. Don’t use "we The non-named statement of "they" is used to cover up personal responsibility.

11.4 Don't be afraid to solve difficult problems

a. It must be understood that problems with good solutions are different from problems without solutions.

b. Find the problem in a machine way.

12 Diagnose the problem, explore the root cause

12.1 Make a diagnosis

a. Ask the following questions first:

1. Is the result good or bad?

2. Who is responsible for the results?

3. If the result is not good, is it because the responsible person is not capable or the machine design is faulty?

b. Find out which step of the five-step process went wrong.

c. Find out which principles are violated.

d. Avoid "after the fact".

e. Don’t confuse the pros and cons of someone’s environment with the pros and cons of their coping methods.

f. To realize the fact that others don't know how to do it, does not mean that you can know how to do it.

g. The root of the problem is not an action but a cause.

h. In order to distinguish which is the problem of insufficient manpower and which is the problem of insufficient capacity, we must consider how well we will do our work if there are sufficient manpower in a specific position.

i. Remember that managers usually fail or fail to achieve their goals for one (or more) of the following 5 reasons.

12.2 Through continuous diagnosis to maintain comprehensive judgments keeping pace with the times

12.3 The diagnosis should be fruitful

a. If the same people do the same things, the same results will be produced.

12.4 Use the following "deep digging" techniques to form an impression based on the 80/20 rule of the department or lower-level department where the problem occurs

12.5 Diagnosis is the basis for achieving progress and establishing good interpersonal relationships

13 Improve machines and solve problems

13.1 Systematize the principles and the methods of implementing them

a. Seriously think about the standards you make decisions based on, and build excellent decision-making machines accordingly .

13.2 A good plan should be like a movie script

a. Put yourself in a "painful position" for a period of time to gain a deeper understanding of what you are designing for.

b. Imagine other possible alternative machines and the results of their operations, and then make a choice.

c. Not only must the consequences of the first round be considered, but also the consequences of the second and third rounds.

d. Hold regular meetings to make the company run as accurately as a Swiss clock.

e. A good machine must take into account that people may not be perfect.

13.3 Design is a cyclical process. There is a "continuous effort" between the dissatisfied "now" and the beautiful "future". The stage of

a. Understand the power of "cleaning storm".

13.4 When designing an organizational structure, focus on goals rather than tasks.

a. From the top Down the ground to build an organization.

b. Everyone must be supervised by a credible person who upholds high standards.

c. The people at the apex of the pyramid should have the skills and focus to manage direct reports, andSubordinates have a deep understanding of their work.

d. When designing an organization, using a five-step process is a shortcut to success. Different employees can work together.

e. Don't let an organization adapt to employees.

f. It is appropriate to consider the size of the organization.

g. According to the law of "universal gravitation", divide the business department and its subordinate departments in the most logical way.

h. Let each department be as self-sufficient as possible in order to control the resources needed. (To give the department sufficient autonomy)

i. To ensure smooth contact and communication, the ratio of senior managers to grassroots managers, and the ratio of grassroots managers to their direct subordinates should be controlled within a certain range.

j. Succession planning and training arrangements should be considered in the design.

k. Don't just stare at your own work, but also pay attention to how your work will proceed if you are not present.

l. In order to ensure that key tasks are completed correctly, it is better to "do it twice" than to "reconfirm twice."

m. Use consultants wisely and prevent excessive reliance on consultants.

13.5 Depict a pyramid-shaped organizational chart. Any two lines connecting the bottom of the tower from the top of the tower should not cross

a. When you encounter cross-departmental or cross-subsidiary issues, let the people at the intersection of the pyramids handle them.

b. Do not complete the work for people in other departments, and do not draw people from other departments to work for you unless you have the consent of the department manager.

c. Prevent "department misalignment".

a. Don't expect people to realize and eliminate their blind spots.

b. Consider a "shamrock" design.

13.6 Keep the strategic plan unchanged, and make appropriate tactical fine-tuning when the environment permits

a. Don't let expedients exceed strategic goals.

b. Consider the overall situation and details at the same time, and understand the connection between the two.

13.7 Maintain proper monitoring so that lies have no opportunity to take advantage of

a. Investigate and let The staff knows that you will conduct an investigation.

b. Know that if there is no police (auditor), the law is meaningless.

c. Watch out for rubber stamps. (Rubber stamp: rubber stamp, refers to an act or person who stamps a document without inspection.)

d. People who spend money according to your requirements may spend money lavishly. (Some advertising pitchers are really more aggressive)

e. Prevent bad behavior by "killing chickens and monkeys".

13.8 Report route and description of responsibilities should be as clear as possible

a. Don’t be based on title, but based on Responsibilities for work flow design and personnel capacity assignment. (Achieve true flatness)

b. It is necessary to keep thinking about how to generate leverage effect with small gains. (You can think of the process as a fulcrum, with a good and efficient SOP, 1+1 is far greater than 2)

c. Hiring a few smart people and giving them the best technical means is far better than hiring a large number Ordinary people are rationed to ordinary technology.

13.9 Know that almost everything takes more time and money than you expected

< h3>14 Act as planned

14.1 Strive towards goals that excite you and your organization, and consider how to link tasks to those goals

a. Coordinate and motivate everyone to move forward.

b. Don't be impulsive, sharpen your knife and chop wood by mistake.

c. Look for creative and smart solutions.

14.2 Be aware that everyone is very busy

a. Don't be discouraged.

14.3 Use checklist

a. Do not check List and personal responsibility are confused.

14.4 Allow time to rest

14.5 Toll the bell to celebrate

15 Use tools and code of conduct to work

15.1 Embedding systematic principles into tools to practice creative selection is of special importance

a. In order to promote real behavior change, learning must be internalized or become a habit.

b. Use tools to collect data, and form conclusions and actions after processing.

c. Explain the principles clearly, use various tools and plans to promote implementation, form a trust and fair atmosphere, so that any conclusion can be evaluated by tracking the logic and data behind it.

16 Don’t ignore corporate governance

16.1 In order to succeed, all organizations must establish checks and balances

a. Even under creative selection, winning by opinions is not the only decisive factor in assigning responsibilities and power.

b. Make sure that no one in the company is stronger than the system, and no one is so important that it is irreplaceable.

c. Beware of the separatism of the princes. (Beware of office politics)

d. When designing an organization's organizational structure and rules, make sure that the checks and balances work.

e. Make sure the report route is clear.

f. The ownership of decision-making power must be clear.

g. It is necessary to ensure that those who are engaged in job performance evaluation:

(1) Have time to grasp comprehensive information on the work situation of the evaluated object;

(2) Ability to perform evaluation;

(3) There is no conflict of interest hindering its effective exercise of supervision power.

h. Decision makers can access the information needed to make a decision, but they must keep their promises and keep the information securely.

16.2 In the creative selection of the best, single CEO decision-making is not as good as collective decision-making

16.3 A governance system composed of principles, rules, checks and balances cannot replace outstanding partnerships

Peace Out!

Scan the QR code to follow Mr. Tupa

Get more foreign SEM and SEO dry goods

Follow the official account ID: yestupa



Label group:[Design company] [work management] [Decision-making capacity] [Misunderstanding

Extended reading

Same topic