He was a well-known "entrepreneur" in the Republic of China, and he became a principal after failing to stock market, and he has since reached the peak of power _ Chiang Kai-shek

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Topic:A share trading uniform

Interestingly, Mao Zedong, Chiang’s life rival, also created his own publication when he was young, namely the weekly "Xiangjiang Review". More coincidentally, the "Xiangjiang Review" only issued four public issues-the fifth issue was all confiscated by Zhang Jingyao's warlord government before it was released.

Back to our theme, at this time, the senior leaders of the League also wrote a blank check to Chiang Kai-shek, promising that the newly established Jixun Bureau would recommend Chiang Kai-shek to study in Germany at public expense. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek gave up entering the non-commissioned school and devoted himself to learning German. However, the Jixun Bureau later claimed that they did not choose to send military attachés and completely cut off Chiang Kai-shek's desire to study at a German military academy. As a result, Chiang Kai-shek could not go to the Japanese noncommissioned academy here, and could not go to Germany to study military academies there. It can be said that it has declined to the extreme.

Chiang Kai-shek founded the "Military Voice" magazine, which is actually a spiritual sanctuary built by him after his political frustration. He turned his attention to military knowledge and immersed himself in the teachings on paper. Only in this way could he alleviate the anger and pain of being abandoned by the revolutionary comrades in his heart.

On the eve of the Second Revolution, Chiang Kai-shek stopped updating the magazine and returned to his hometown in Fenghua. At this time, the former eldest brother Chen Qimei was preparing for the anti-Yuan revolution, so he recalled Chiang Kai-shek to his command.

At the time of the Anti-Yuan War, Chiang Kai-shek met Sun Yat-sen for the first time in Shanghai. For Chiang Kai-shek, he finally entered the vision of the revolutionary leader and laid the first brick for his future rise in the Kuomintang.

(Chiang Jieshi wearing glasses actually looks very gentle)

Second, the first time to stock

Chiang Kai-shek’s second venture is already eight years later.

During this period, the revolution led by Sun Yat-sen has been unsuccessful. The Beiyang warlord will sing and I will appear on the stage. China is still in a semi-colonial state.

Sun Yat-sen advocated the establishment of the Chinese own stock exchange during the Law Protection Movement, otherwise it would not be conducive to the development of national capitalism. Under his advocacy, the Shanghai Stock Exchange was established in February 1920. The chairman is Yu Qiaqing, a comprador who has been closely related to Sun Yat-sen, and the 17 executive directors are mostly financial professionals in the Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai areas. We can say that this exchange is actually the KMT’s secret financing organization.

In April 1920, Chiang Kai-shek left the Guangdong Army and returned to Shanghai due to a disagreement with Chen Jiongming. He and Chen Guofu jointly organized the Youai Company and began to stock up for the revolution. The capital of Youai Company is 5,000 yuan, all of which is advanced by Chiang Kai-shek. The company purchased 400 shares of the Shanghai Commodity Stock Exchange and appointed Chen Guofu as its voluntary manager to be responsible for the operation.

In the eyes of a financial layman like Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Guofu, who has worked at the bank, is a very business-minded person, so he can rest assured to let him run the company's business.

Unexpectedly, after the company opened, there was no success. At that time, the international financial turmoil broke out and the price of silver fell sharply in major cities around the world, and Shanghai was no exception. This led to serious losses for Youai. Chiang Kai-shek believes that this is the ghost of imperialism behind the scenes: "Financial institutions are in the hands of outsiders, and the people of the country are sometimes oppressed, it is regrettable." Although there is no direct evidence.

He stubbornly believes that imperialism is secretly doing bad things, so he further complained that the Chinese were unwilling to be bullied by others. He wrote in his diary: In order to transform it."

To tell the truth, Chiang Kai-shek's attributed the fall in Shanghai silver prices to the control of international capitalism, which does not necessarily correspond to historical facts. Because since China has been involved in the capitalist global market, China’s finance will definitelyInfluenced by international finance. As long as China is in this system, no matter whether China can compete, it can actually not stop the fluctuations from the international financial turmoil. You must know that the capitalist world economic crisis of 1929, even the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other powers were severely affected. trauma. However, Chiang Kai-shek is a nationalist, and it is easy for him to attribute all the disasters in China to imperialist oppression. This strong national sentiment has always had a huge impact on his later ruling policy.

Third, the second stock trading

After the first failed entry into the stock market, Chiang Kai-shek was not discouraged. He wants to make a comeback. In July 1920, the Shanghai Stock Exchange was officially opened. He and Chen Guofu and others established a new "Maoxin Company". Their brokerage brand is called "Maoxin", acting as an intermediary to buy and sell various securities and cotton yarn on behalf of their clients.

On the first day of the opening of the exchange, Chiang Kai-shek was given a prestige-he lost 1,700 yuan. This was a huge sum of money at the time. When the Kailuan coal miners went on strike, their monthly salary was only 27 yuan.

Although the stock price of the exchange has risen sharply afterwards, Chiang Kai-shek has not yet come out of the pain of dismissal. He didn't dare to follow up until the stock rose from 30 yuan to 42 yuan. While he was still on the sidelines, some people in the company made their own bid to buy in large quantities. After Chiang Kai-shek learned of the news, he was very anxious. He still said in his diary, "Novice businessmen are so unreliable, it's a sigh!"

Chiang Kai-shek’s hunch was very accurate. The stock price of the exchange It quickly fell back, and the loss of "Maoxin" increased to more than 7,000 yuan. Angrily, he ran from Shanghai to Mount Putuo in Zhejiang to worship Guanyin Bodhisattva.

It may be the blessing of Guanyin Bodhisattva. Soon after, the stock price of the exchange began to turn upwards, which gave him a lot of encouragement, "Thinking about the trading of stocks on the exchange in the future." As a result, he devoted all his attention to stock trading. His wife, Chen Jieru, recalled, “He read books about finance and learned how to buy and sell stocks and investments. This was very new to him. Soon he was excited about the rise and fall of various stocks, especially The profit he might get occupied his whole mind. He studied which stock was good and which stock was bad all day, gradually forgetting the original hatred in his heart. It is quite rare to occupy a seat in the Shanghai Stock Building, so Jieshi Work actively and hard. Stock trading is an indispensable part of Shanghai's finance. Thousands of speculators who rely on for their livelihoods crowd the building every day. Jieshi stares at the market trend like an eagle. Buying high and selling low is like a veteran."

Prior to this, Chiang Kai-shek was still studying Philosophy History, Economics, Napoleon’s Biography, Washington Biography, "New Youth" magazine, etc., and he was still learning Russian and English by himself, and made a promise. “In the future, personal knowledge will focus on European language, economics, philosophy, military affairs, history, and geography. Recently, I plan to use both European language and history to work hard.” As a result, I only read financial books every day. Knowing to look at stock trends, I completely forgot the flag I set at the end of last year.

It may be because of Chiang Kai-shek’s focus that the company began to become profitable. Chen Guofu recalled: “Maoxin’s share capital increased from 10,000 yuan to 15,000 yuan and gradually increased to 30,000 yuan every day. Expenses are less than 30 yuan, and in the worst time of business, the commission income is always more than 30 yuan, and the best is 2,000 yuan. The prosperity of the business can be imagined. "You can enjoy it through stock trading. Yes, this makes Chiang Kai-shek reluctant to think about Shu. In 1921, Dai Jitao persuaded the newly appointed nouveau riche Chiang Kai-shek to return to Guangdong to continue participating in the revolution, but Jiang Jieshi immediately refused: "Promoting me to go out and do things is to promote my life!"

The market conditions at that time were also relatively good. According to the investigation report of the "Report": "After the autumn of this year (1920), the exchanges were in their heyday, and all industries were honored to have exchanges." By October 1921, there were more than 140 exchanges in Shanghai with rated capital. Up to 180 million yuan. "

"The stock market is risky, you need to be cautious when entering the market." The prosperity of the Shanghai stock market was actually a bubble blown up by speculators. At the beginning of 1922, the bubble finally burst, and many brokers were forced to commit suicide. . Chiang Kai-shek’s company also went bankrupt. Overnight, he turned from a nouveau riche to a debt-laden pauper. At that time, he couldn’t even pay 15 yuan for new clothes for his son Chiang Ching-kuo.

Facing the debtor's debt collection, Chiang Kai-shek had to send a student post to Huang Jinrong, a gangster in Shanghai, begging him to be his backer. After Chiang Kai-shek kowtowed Huang Jinrong to recognize him as a godfather, Huang Jinrong promised to help him. Debt. If it were not for Jinrong to help him, it is estimated that Chiang Kai-shek would have been tied up into rice dumplings by the creditors with the background of the Qinggang and thrown into the Huangpu River.The modern history of China will also be completely rewritten.

Regarding this period of history, Chiang Kai-shek has always kept secret, avoiding talking about it—and not letting others talk about it. In 1961, Chen Lifu asked Ye Gongchao, Taiwan’s plenipotentiary ambassador to the United States, to write a memoir for Chiang Kai-shek. Ye Gongchao had three glasses of wine at the banquet. It makes sense to write the memoirs of those prostitutes who were in Guangzhou."

The sentence reached Chiang Kai-shek the next day. Chiang Kai-shek was furious and immediately made a pair of shoes for Ye Gongchao by himself. Still venting his anger in the diary: "Ye’s treacherous words and deeds should not be what I expected. And his humiliation to me, his ignorance and arrogance have reached this point, which is a surprise.... For ten years, I feel even more aware. Literati’s unethical conduct, no national conception is painful!” It can be seen how sensitive Chiang Kai-shek is to the issue of stock trading. Ye Gongchao is only talking about historical facts, but in Chiang Kai-shek’s eyes it has become a deliberate personal attack.

Chiang Kai-shek did not shy away from his absurd behavior in Fengyue place when he was young, so it was Ye Gongchao who mentioned his career as a stock investor that made him furious. And the reason why he was so furious, I think it might be that he didn't want people to know the embarrassing experience of kowtow to the gangster. Whoever mentioned it was anxious.

Fourth, internal entrepreneurship

After the failure of stock trading, Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the darkest moment, received the same Sun Yat-sen's rescue telegram in the darkest moment. At this time, because of Chen Jiongming's rebellion, Sun Yat-sen fled to take refuge on the Yongfeng ship. After Chiang Kai-shek received the telegram, he slowly and slowly, only set off from Shanghai to Guangzhou a week later. When he boarded the Yongfeng ship, it was already long overdue.

This period of history was later portrayed by the Kuomintang as Chiang Kai-shek’s arrival at Yongfeng ship in time, and he couldn’t wait for the romantic revolution epic of "fighting in trouble" and "live and death together" with the founding father. It was at this time that Sun Yat-sen noticed Chiang Kai-shek. Loyal and loyal, began to attach importance to the development potential of this young man.

However, Chiang Kai-shek did enter Sun Yat-sen's core circle of friends from the moment he boarded the Yongfeng ship, although he was still on the edge of the circle. Two years later, Chiang Kai-shek obtained the position of president of the Whampoa Military Academy from Sun Yat-sen through a series of tricks.

Chiang Kai-shek realized early on that in China, whoever has a gun in his hand will be tough when he speaks. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek painstakingly managed the Whampoa Military Academy and worked hard to cultivate armed forces loyal to him. In today's words, it was his second undertaking in the Kuomintang. As the principal, Chiang Kai-shek often wins over the relationship with the students through conversation. Many students feel very honored that Chiang Kai-shek personally talked to him. In private, he called Chiang Kai-shek the "principal" and called himself a "student" of Chiang Kai-shek, showing strong expressions. The color of "student and old official". In this way, Chiang Kai-shek used the Whampoa students to develop his own political cronies, and then formed the "Whampoa System". This is why Chiang Kai-shek was able to leapfrog and command the front-line grassroots officers.

Through this internal entrepreneurship, Chiang Kai-shek’s political capital rapidly expanded, enabling him to defeat the Kuomintang veterans such as Hu Hanmin, Wang Jingwei, and Liao Zhongkai, and become the highest leader of the Kuomintang after Sun Yat-sen in one fell swoop.

Several entrepreneurial experiences of Chiang Kai-shek have played a key role for him to reach the peak of power in the future. Chiang Kai-shek's stock trading in Shanghai, although he went from getting rich overnight to being heavily in debt, it also strengthened the connection between Chiang Kai-shek and the Jiangsu and Zhejiang financial bourgeoisie. Chiang Kai-shek's control of the Whampoa Military Academy trained him to be loyal to his guns, and then power came out of the guns. Moreover, the former and the latter complement each other. In 1924, Chiang Kai-shek asked Chen Guofu to purchase uniforms, belts, rifle belts, scabbards, etc. for the Whampoa Military Academy in Shanghai, which were detained by Shanghai Customs. Old friends in the financial world such as Yu Qiaqing intervened for this. Successfully solved the problem; in 1927, the Northern Expedition moved to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The financial bourgeoisie of Jiangsu and Zhejiang placed high hopes on Jiang and invested money to support him against Wang Jingwei's Wuhan National Government.

It seems that there is no white-creation karma in the world, and every step counts.

This failure may be paving the way for the next success. In Hu Shizhi's words, it means "don't donate money."

Reference materials:

1. "Chiang Jieshi's Diary 1915-1949"

2. Dai Hongchao, "The Way of Governing the Country by Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong", published by The Times, 2015

3. Yang Tianshi, "The Secret Files of Chiang Kai-shek and the Truth About Chiang Kai-shek", Chongqing Publishing House, 2015

4. Li Ao and Wang Rongzu, "The Commentary on Chiang Kai-shek", China Friendship Publishing Company, 2000

5. "The First Draft of Chiang Kai-shek Chronicle", edited by Wan Renyuan and Fang Qingqiu, China Archives Publishing House, 1992

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Label group:[stock] [Shanghai] [Entrepreneur] [Modern Chinese History] [Chiang Kai-shek] [Sun Yat-sen] [Whampoa Military Academy] [Ye Gongchao] [Republic of China

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